Blockchain and Smart Contract for Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading Platform: Legal Obstacles and Regulatory Solutions

This paper discusses the legal risks and regulatory solutions for a peer-to-peer energy trading platform (P2P-ETP) in creating a sustainable energy ecosystem. Part I discusses the conceptual framework of P2P-ETP, which enables consumers to become energy ‘producers' and traders. Smart technologies — smart contracts, smart meters, and distributed ledger technology (DLT) — are the main components of this platform. The study examines the legal basis and regulatory framework for these components. Part II analyses the legal uncertainty of the smart contract, such as its enforceability, and the inadequate protection for consumers and their individual rights through price manipulation, violation of rights to privacy, and data breaches. Part III discusses the potential policy implementations and the principles behind a legal and regulatory framework for establishing a trusted peer-to-peer energy trading platform.

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