Singapore is a small island-state in Southeast Asia, located along the Strait of Malacca between Malaysia and Indonesia. It is the most urbanised and industrialised country in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), with a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of $52,200 (in constant 2010 US$) in 2015. Singapore submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on 3 July 2015 (NCCS, 2015) and has signed off to the Paris Agreement as of 22 April 2016 (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2016). Singapore’s INDC highlights its intentions to reduce its emissions intensity by 36% from 2005 levels by 2030. In addition to emissions intensity targets, Singapore also intends to stabilise emissions with the aim of peaking around 2030. Under the Copenhagen Accord, Singapore also has a voluntary target of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions by 7%– 11% below Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario levels in 2020 (NCCS, 2012), which will be increased to 16% if there is a global agreement on climate change.

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